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Behaviourism - Skinner (DD)

1) Operant conditioning uses . These include and punishments to modify behaviour. Alterntively reinforcement occurs when a behavior changes because an stimulus is removed . In education this approach assumes that children are born in a state of '' ('blank slate'). Reinforcers are used in order to modify behaviours, for example, if a is given then a behaviour is less likely to happen. The was used to teach the rats and pigeons in his famous experiments. 


picutre of rat in 'Skinner box' with wire floor, speakers, lights, lever, food pelet dispenser  

Rat in 'Skinner Box'

2) Skinner applied these ideas to education via ''. According to Skinner, the purpose of this technique is to "manage human learning under controlled conditions". It has three elements: (1) it delivers information in , (2) it is by the learner, and (3) it provides , both positive and negative, to the learner.
This idea was used to create a ''. This device would be able to ask learners questions and reward them for giving the right answers.  Skinner was finding a way to rote learning and free the teacher to do more valuable things.

boy using Skinner machine in 1950s, a bit like a typewriter with no keys

Boy with 'Learning Machine'



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